The C shaped cartilages of the trachea allow all of the following to occur EXCEPT


Functions of bone include all of the following EXCEPT


In the organization of skeletal muscle, the muscle cell contains the contractile proteins. Which of thefollowing ...


A client in your exercise class has been complaining of back pain with no ridiculer symptoms. This personhas been ...


All of the following statements are true regarding long bones EXCEPT


The arm is capable of performing all of the following motions EXCEPT


The prime movers for extension of the knee are the


A baseball pitcher has been complaining of weakness in the lateral rotation motions of the shoulder. Youhave been ...


Cartilage is categorized as which of the following types of connective tissue.


Blood leaving the heart to be oxygenated in the lungs must first pass through the right atrium and ventricle.Thro ...


An abnormal curve of the spine with lateral deviation of the vertebral column is called


Which of the following is considered to be a "balland socket" joint.


Which of the following is the ability of a force to cause rotation of a lever.


Standard sites for the measurement of skinfolds include the


A standard site for the measurement of circumfer ences is the


The most common site used for measurement of the pulse during exercise is the


Blood from the peripheral anatomy flows to the heart through the superior and inferior venae cavae into the


Arteries are large diameter vessels that carry blood away from the heart. As they course through the body,they p ...


The law of inertia


Running is a locomotor activity similar to walking but with some differences. In comparison to walking,running re ...


Who first described that a body immersed in fluid is buoyed up with a force equal to the weight of thedisplaced f ...


Which of the following bones articulates proxi mally with the sternal manubrium and distally with thescapula an ...


Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of the "power position" used for lifting with proper bodymechanics ...


The intervertebral disks have which of the following characteristics.


Pain caused by low back muscle guarding and spasm in the absence of signs of disk herniation is oftentreated with ...


Which of the following will increase stability.


Which type of musculoskeletal lever is most common.


Angular motion occurs when


In second class lever,


Slapping of the foot during heel strike and increased knee and hip flexion during swing are characteristic of


Which of the following is characteristic of running versus walking.


Low back pain occurs most commonly in the lumbar region, because


The rear foot motion called pronation results from a combination of


Which of the following is NOT a major food fuel during exercise.


The chemical energy that is directly converted to do work is


Which of the following is true when two people of different weights (80 and 70 kg) are exercising at 5mphl5% grad ...


Which of the following would provide the SMALLEST potential energy source in the body.


Before and after 10 weeks of endurance training, an individual performs a submaximal exercise test at aconstant w ...


BACD434CCAFA8D24B56238B9When compared with leg exercise, arm exercise results in a relatively


During exercise of increasing intensity, the SV of normal adults


The simplest and most rapid method to produce ATP during exercise is through


In general, the higher the intensity of the activity, the greater the contribution of


The energy to perform long term exercise (> or = 15 min) comes primarily from


The energy to perform long term exercise (> or = 16 min) comes primarily from


In a rested, well fed athlete, most of the carbohydrate used as a substrate during exercise comes from


Fast twitch muscle fibers have which of the following characteristics compared with slow twitch musclefibers. ...


The motor neuron and all the muscle fibers it innervates are called a


The three principal mechanisms for increasing venous return during dynamic exercise are


Any physical activity with a performance time of approximately 30 seconds or less relies on which of thefollowing ...


Which of the following is NOT a muscle type.


When a motor unit is stimulated by a single nerve impulse, it responds by contracting one time and thenrelaxing. ...


Which muscle protein contains many cross bridges.


Cardiac muscle action potentials are longer in duration than those of skeletal muscle. The longer actionpotential ...


Which of the following cardiovascular variables does NOT increase as a result of chronic exercise whileperforming ...


Myocardial oxygen consumption is best estimated from


During mild to moderate exercise, pulmonary ventilation increases primarily as a result of increased


The anaerobic threshold occurs at the onset of


Which of the following statements about static exercise is accurate.


Which of the following statements regarding arm versus leg exercise is correct.


End diastolic volume is highest when measured with the client in which position.


Which of the following are byproducts of aerobic metabolism.


Cardiac output is a function of


Which of the following describes a normal postexercise blood pressure (BP) response.


Stroke volume is defined as


As a result of exercise training, cardiac output becomes


During exercise, SV increases as a result of


In terms of chronological age, early childhood is usually described as


Which age group is the fastest growing segment of the


Increased after load associated with increased peripheral resistance as a result of aging causes


BACD434CCAFA8D24B56238B9An increase in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure at rest and during exercise oft ...


The remains relatively unchanged throughout childhood. However, after age 25, it typically decreases by


Cardiac output is a function of heart rate and stroke volume. In children, why is heart rate higher at restand du ...


The increases as a result of physical training in elderly persons. This occurs for all of the following reasonsEX ...


The total number of muscle fibers is fixed at an early age, but


Strenuous exercise can predispose children to which of the following.


max Advancing age brings a progressive decline in bone mineral density and calcium content; thisprocess is accele ...


All of the following musculoskeletal changes typically occur with advancing age EXCEPT


Body fat generally increases with advancing age, particularly between childhood and early adultophood,because of ...


A medical history as well as risk factor screening are important before prescribing an exercise program forolder ...


Which of the following can an older person expect as a result of participation in an exercise program.


Which of the following would generally be the preferred mode of exercise for an elderly person.


An exercise program for elderly persons generally should emphasize increased


For optimal cardiovascular as well as balance and flexibility adaptations, an elderly person generallyshould exer ...


In response to regular resistance training,


Angina that occurs at rest is termed


A group of pulmonary disorders characterized by expiratory airflow obstruction, dyspnea (shortness ofbreath), and ...


The primary effects of chronic exercise training on lipid values are


Which of the following would be the best recommendation for exercise training in a hot and humid, outdoorenvironm ...


Which of the following best explains the pathophysiology of CAD.


A cardiac patient is taking a l3 blocker medication. During an exercise test, you would expect


The aging related loss of elasticity (or "hardening") of the arteries is known as


The deficiency of blood flow to the myocardium that results when oxygen demand exceeds oxygen supplyis known as ...


What procedure uses a clot dissolving agent during acute MI to restore blood flow and limit myocardialnecrosis. ...


All of the following are suggestive of cardiovascular and pulmonary disease EXCEPT


Modifiable primary risk factors for CAD include


What is the current state of knowledge on progression or regression of atherosclerosis in human coronaryarteries. ...


What is the correct term and definition to describe a potential complication that may occur after an acuteMI. ...


The goal of risk stratification is to


A classic sign of subendocardial ischemia is


Which of the following is the one true statement concerning the surgical treatment of CAD.


A possible mechanism by which chronic exercise training may reduce resting blood pressure inhypertensive individu ...


An embolism


A sedentary lifestyle


Body fat appears to be most dangerous when


All of the following are considered possible causes of restrictive lung disease EXCEPT


Which statement below best describes the condition of asthma.


BACD434CCAFA8D24B56238B9Metabolic syndrome (also referred to a syndrome X or the deadly quartet) is comprised of ...


All of the following risk factors for CAD can be modified by a regular and appropriate exercise trainingprogram E ...


Emerging risk factors for CAD include


Theories are used in programs for


In which stage of motivational readiness is a person who is an irregular exerciser.


Setting several short term goals to attain a long term goal to increase self efficacy is an example of


A limitation of psychological theories is


The idea that intention is the most important determinant of behavior is a central component of the


In the Social Cognitive Theory, which three major dynamic interacting influences are postulated asdetermining beh ...


A decisional balance sheet is used to


An individual would not increase self efficacy by


People in which stage are at the greatest risk of relapse.


Which of the following strategies can help a person to maintain his or her physical activity.


Referrals to other sources may be required if someone


Establishing specific expectations of what you are, willing to do as a counselor and staying focused onexercise/p ...


Encouraging moderate intensity activity and the accumulation of activity throughout the day are examplesof


Which of the following is an example of a behavioral process in the Transtheoretical Model.


One mistake that health care providers and exercise promoters make is to


The concept of shaping refers to


Verbal encouragement, material incentives, self praise, and use of specific contingency contracts areexamples of ...


The three functions of the Participant Centered Education and Counseling Model include


The Transtheoretical Model assumes that individuals


If an individual is in the action stage, he or she


Which does NOT help to establish a supportive relationship.


Which of the following would assist anxious people before an exercise test.


Which of the following are NOT symptoms of depression.


BACD434CCAFA8D24B56238B9Which of the following are symptoms of anxiety.


A well designed consent document developed in consultation with a qualified legal professional providesyour faci ...


Relative contraindications for exercise testing are conditions for which


A male client is 42 years old. His father died of a heart attack at age 62. He has a consistent resting bloodpres ...


During calibration of a treadmill, the belt length was found to be 5.5 m. It took 1 minute and 40 seconds forthe ...


Flexibility is a measure of the


Which of the following is a FALSE statement regarding informed consent.


Which of the following statements about underwater weighing is TRUE.


Which of the following criteria would NOT classify a client as having "increased risk".


A client must be given specific instructions for the days preceding a fitness assessment. Which of thefollowing i ...


Hydrodensitometry (hydrostatic weighing, underwater weighing) has several sources of error. Which of thefollowing ...


The definition of cardiorespiratory fitness is


Which of the following formulae is used for determining workload on a bicycle ergometer.


Adults age physiologically at individual rates. Therefore, adults of any specified age will vary widely in theirp ...


A client with a functional capacity of 7 MET, an ejection fraction of 37%, and an ST segment depressionof 1 mm ...


The most accurate screening method for signs and symptoms of CAD is a


What is the best test to help determine ejection fraction at rest and during exercise.


A "cold spot" detected in the inferior portion of the left ventricle during a stress test that resolves 3 hoursla ...


What is the best test of cardiovascular function for a client who is obese, has claudication in the legs, andhas ...


Although 12 lead testing is the optimal ECG configuration, if only one lead can be used, which one shouldit be. ...


Which of the following is an indication for terminating an exercise test.


Given the sensitivity of the exercise ECG, stress testing conducted on 100 cardiac rehabilitation clientswith doc ...


What action should you take for a 55 year old client who has three risk factors for heart disease andcomplains ...


For a client taking a 3 blocker who has lowered resting blood pressure and heart rate, which of thefollowing sta ...


Two individuals have the same body weight, gender, ethnic background, and skinfold measurementresults. One is 25 ...


Lead V is located at the


Following termination of a stress test, a 12 lead ECG is


For a client who has a contraindication to exercise testing but could benefit greatly from the informationgained ...


A client who has a measured FVC of 3.5 Land can expel 3.1 L within 1 second has


The clinical exercise physiologist shares a responsibility to


Which of the following is NOT considered to be a benefit of follow up in an emergency situation.


Which of the following actions involving termination of exercise testing is correct.


Safety procedures for clinical staff help protect them from


The treatment modality RICES includes all of the following EXCEPT


Which of the following statements about emergency equipment is MOST important.


Symptoms of hyperglycemia include all of the following EXCEPT


Emergency procedures and safety include which of the following.


Category 1 medications include all of the following EXCEPT


The emergency response system (EMS) is:


In developing an emergency plan, program administrators must take into account all of the followingfactors EXCEPT ...


Documentation in the context of emergency response commonly refers to


A patient who exhibits tachycardia, diaphoresis, light headedness, and visual disturbances may beexperiencing


Which of the following is NOT part of an emergency plan.


What is OSHA.


The preparation of professional staff should include training in


Which of the following is NOT considered to be an absolute contraindication to exercise testing.


Which of the following manifestations would be an indication for stopping an exercise test.


Serious complications during an exercise session


The exercise staffs role when an injury or emergency occurs should be to:


In preventing injuries, hydration is very important, because


What is the most appropriate action in assisting a person suffering from a seizure.


One of the first actions that a fitness instructor should consider in preventing injury is to


How should a fitness instructor advise a client with regard to progression of the exercise program.


How can exercise equipment add to the risk of participation.


Prevention strategies of staff and clients must include


An equipment maintenance plan should include


In cleaning the facility and equipment, what must an operator be aware of.


Which of the following are symptoms of hypoglycemia.


RICES refers to


Complaints of pain in the chest with associated pain radiating down the left arm may be signs of


Beyond the general safety parameters, such as keeping equipment in good repair, a facility must create asafe envi ...


Weight room safety should include


Fire, bloodborne pathogens, and power outage should all be included in


The potential benefits and risks of an exercise test should be written in what document.


Documentation offers important


Emergency procedures should be


Which of the following is NOT a principle of low back care.


What are some of the risks for musculoskeletal injury.


Chronic soreness and fatigue are symptoms of


Which of the following is NOT an appropriate treatment activity for inpatient rehabilitation of a client on these ...


Which of the following situations indicates progression to independent and unsupervised exercise for aclient afte ...


Which of the following issues would you include in discharge education instructions for a client withcongestive h ...


Initial training sessions for a person with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease most likely wouldNOT inc ...


Symptoms of claudication include


Treatment for claudication during exercise includes all of the following EXCEPT


A client with angina exhibits symptoms and a 1mm, down sloping ST segment depression at a HR of 129bpm on his ...


Special precautions for clients with hypertension include all of the following EXCEPT:


A client with type 1 diabetes mellitus checks her fasting morning glucose level on her whole blood glucosemeter ...


A 62 year old, obese factory worker complains of pain in his right shoulder on arm abduction; onevaluation, dec ...


All of the following are special considerations inprescribing exercise for the client with arthritisEXCEPT


What common medication taken by clients with end stage renal disease requires careful management forthose underg ...


Which of the following is an appropriate exercise for clients with diabetes and loss of protective sent ion inthe ...


A client taking a calcium channel blocker most likely will exhibit which of the following responses duringexerci ...


During the cool down phase of an exercise session, clients should be encouraged to


Muscular endurance training is best accomplished by


Transitional care exercise and rehabilitation programs are NOT appropriate for


Many clients have WI mode programmed pacemakers. Which of the following is TRUE regarding exerciseprogramming wi ...


Controlling pool water temperature (83 88°F), avoiding jarring and weight bearing activities, and avoidingmo ...


Which of the following is a resistive lung disease.


A specific benefit of regular exercise for patients with angina is


Which of the following is NOT a benefit of increased flexibility.


Which of the following statements regarding warm up is FALSE.


Which of the following statements regarding cooldown is FALSE.


All of the following are examples of aerobic exercise modalities EXCEPT


A target HR equivalent to 85% of HRR for a 25year old male with a resting HR of 75 BPM would be equalto


The appropriate exercise HR for an individual on blocking medication would generally be


The recommended cardiorespiratory exercise training goal for apparently healthy individuals should be


In an effort to improve flexibility, the ACSM recommends


An appropriate exercise for improving the strength of the low back muscles is


Which of the following statements true regarding exercise leadership is FALSE.


BACD434CCAFA8D24B56238B9Which of the following statements regarding exercise for the elderly is FALSE.


Which of the following medications have been shown to be most effective in preventing or reversingexercise induc ...


The exercise leader or health/fitness instructor should modify exercise sessions for participants withhypertensio ...


Normal values for fasting blood sugar are


The goal for the obese exercise participant should be to


Which of the following statements regarding exercise for persons with controlled cardiovascular disease isTRUE. ...


All of the following factors are important to consider when determining exercise intensity EXCEPT


When determining the intensity level, the RPE is a better indicator than percentage of maximal HR for all ofthe f ...


Using the original Borg scale, it is recommended that the exercise intensity elicit an RPE within the rangeof


The MINIMAL duration of exercise necessary to achieve improvements in health for deconditionedindividuals is


Which of the following is a method of strength and power training that involves an eccentric loading ofmuscles an ...


The safety of resistance exercise is dependent on all of the following except


The recommended muscular strength and endurance training program for apparently healthy individualsshould be


Which the following statements regarding intensity of resistance training are FALSE.


The recommended cardiorespiratory endurance exercise training program for older individuals should be


Osteoporosis is more prevalent in


The eating habits of an athlete involved in long distance running should differ from those of a sedentaryindividu ...


Fiber is a type of carbohydrate that is not digestible (e.g., it will pass through the digestive system withoutbe ...


The BMI is calculated using which of the following formulas.


A common measure to assist in the evaluation of body fat distribution is


Carbohydrate, protein, and fat provide which of the following amounts of energy (kcal/g).


If total daily caloric consumption is 2,400 kcal and the total fat in that diet is 30%, how many grams of fatper ...


When the body consumes more calories than it uses, the condition is called


Diets high in saturated fat can lead to elevations in blood ______ concentration, which may increase risk ofheart ...


An ideal weight loss program should set a goal of _ pounds per week, with an energy intake of not lessthan _ kca ...


Athletes who exercise in the heat and humidity have a special need for fluid replacement. Currentguidelines sugge ...


When counseling a patient with metabolic syndrome, your emphasis should be on addressing underlyingcauses of the ...


Which of the following medical conditions is NOT part of the female athlete triad.


Which of the following waist circumference measurements indicates abdominal obesity.


What is the optimal approach for long term management of body weight.


Which eating disorder is marked by an overwhelming fear of becoming fat, a distorted body image, and extreme rest ...


Which of the following is not a feature of the metabolic syndrome.


All of the following are helpful suggestions for an athlete trying to gain weight EXCEPT


Athletes may have protein needs greater than those of sedentary individuals. What level of protein intake isthe r ...


What is an appropriate initial weight loss goal for an obese individual desiring weight reduction.


Women are likely to be deficient in both calcium and iron, because


Which of the following foods would be in the group recommended to comprise most of the daily energyintake accordi ...


Which of the following diseases is NOT typically associated with obesity.


To lose one pound (=0.5 kg) of body fat, how much of an energy deficit must be created by diet and orphysical act ...


Which fat soluble vitamin is important for bone formation.


Which energy source represents the largest potential energy store in the body.


In a budget for a clinical exercise rehabilitation program, all of the following are examples of variableexpenses ...


A comprehensive patient care plan is necessary for effective program management, because it


The process of risk stratification often is used for the criteria for clinical exercise rehabilitation programadm ...


Which of the following statements about confidentiality is NOT true.


Which of the following statements about injury reporting is NOT correct.


One important aspect of staff competency is ensuring that staff members are well trained and kept up todate. Whic ...


Informed consent is best described as


Which of the following elements is NOT part of an emergency plan for a clinical exercise program.


Which of the following is a fixed expense.


Continuous quality improvement (CQI) is a systematic process of program evaluation that involves all ofthe follow ...


According to the AACVPR, elements of successful adult education include all of the followingEXCEPT


Which one of the following statements concerning a needs assessment is NOT true.


A comprehensive clinical exercise rehabilitation program


Do fitness instructors need management skills.


A fitness newsletter, fitness library, and bulletin boards


Why would a fitness facility be interested in public relations.


Why would a fitness instructor have an interest in tort laws.


What is the best way that an administrator can educate the fitness staff.


BACD434CCAFA8D24B56238B9Budgets are designed to


The rules and regulations of a facility are commonly referred to as


Some of the duties in supervising a fitness staff include scheduling, implementing the policies andprocedures, an ...


What is the primary reason why a manager or director should conduct a needs assessment.


Policies and procedures are important in a fitness center, because they


What are some of the common sales "rules" in promoting your fitness program.


Program description, resource availability, and client interest are examples of


What do effective program administration and management create and/or reduce.


Incident reports are important, because


Why are records valuable to a fitness program.


Examples of program records include


Which of the following is an example of participant interaction as part of the supportive role of a manager.


Staff certification is


Capital budgets


What do budgets determine.


Why should a fitness operator be concerned with state practice laws.


Why is public relations important to a fitness program.


What is the relative Y02 of walking on a treadmill at 3.5 mph and a 0% grade.


A client is walking on a treadmill at 3.4 mph and a 5% grade. What is her Y02 in relative terms.


A 70 kg client is running on a treadmill at 5 mph and a 5% grade. What is his caloric expenditure rate.


What is the relative Yo2 of walking on a treadmill at 3.5 mph and a 10% grade.


What is the MET equivalent to level walking on a treadmill at 3.0 mph.


What is the relative Y02 of running on a treadmill at 6.5 mph and a 0% grade.


What is the relative Y02 of running on a treadmill at 5.5 mph and a 12% grade.


A 150 pound male sets the treadmill speed at 5.0 mph and a 5.2% grade. Calculate his MET value.


A 110 pound female pedals a Monark cycle ergometer at 50 rpm against a resistance of 2.5 kiloponds.Calculate her ...


How many calories will a 110 pound woman expend if she pedals on a Monark cycle ergometer at 50 rpmagainst a res ...


A 55 kilogram woman trains on a cycle ergometer by pedaling at 60 rpm against a resistance of 1.5kiloponds. What ...


The same 55 kilogram woman (from question 12) also trains on a Monark arm ergometer at 60 rpmagainst a resistan ...


If a 70 kg man runs on a treadmill at 8 mph and a 0% grade for 45 minutes, what is his caloricexpenditure.


What is the relative oxygen cost of bench stepping at a rate of 24 steps per minute up a l0 inch steppingbox. ...


What stepping rate should a client use if she wishes to exercise at 5 METs. The step box is 6 inches high,and t ...


A 143 pound woman regularly exercises on a treadmill at a speed of 5.5 mph and a 2% elevation. What isher calori ...


What resistance would you set a cycle ergometer at if your 80 kg client needs to train at 6 METs. Assumea 50 r ...


At what running speed would you set a level treadmill at to elicit an Vo2 of 40 mL .kg 1 . min 1.


If a healthy young man exercises at an intensity of 45 mL. kg 1.min 1 three times per week for 45 minuteseach ...


A 35 year old woman reduces her caloric intake by 1,200 kcal per week. How much weight will she lose in26 weeks ...


How much weight will the woman (from question 22) lose in 26 weeks if she integrates a 1 mile walk, takenthree t ...


Slow conduction in the A V node is associated with


Abnormally tall and peaked T waves suggest which of the following.


Which of the following conditions can prolong the QT interval.


Differentiation between supraventricular and ventricular rhythm is made on the basis of the


Which of the following is one cause of a wide QRS complex.


In response to various stimuli, movements of ions occur, causing the rapid loss of the internal negative potentia ...


Digitalis effect refers to


Tall, positive T waves may be caused to all of the following EXCEPT


Right axis deviation may be caused by


In atrial flutter, the stimulation rate is approximately


Myocardial cells can be excited in response to all of the following stimuli EXCEPT:


The P wave on the ECG can be


In the ECG shown on the following page, which of the following conduction abnormalities is indicated.


What condition can cause ST segment elevation.


In the ECG strip shown below, what disorder is indicated.


In the ECG strip shown below, what disorder is indicated.


In the ECG strip shown below, what abnormality is indicated.


Subendocardial ischemia usually produces


In the ECG strip shown below, which arrhythmia is present.


In the ECG strip shown below, which arrhythmia is indicated.